The Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago's Glossary of Stroke Terminology
Cardiovascular System -- composed of the heart and blood vessels, is responsible for circulating blood throughout your body to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients.
Stroke -- An injury that occurs when not enough oxygen and blood reach the brain. The medical term used for stroke is Cerebral Vascular Accident. There are three types of strokes:
- Thrombotic Stroke -- When a blood clot forms in an artery and blocks the flow of blood
- Embolic strokes - When a blood clot forms in another part of the body and moves to the brain
- Hemorrhagic Stroke - When a weak blood vessel in the brain breaks and blood moves into the brain tissue. The brain cells and tissue do not receive oxygen and nutrients.
Computed Tomography Scan --Also called a CT or CAT scan, it's a procedure that can be utilized to assist in diagnosing a stroke. This procedure uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs
Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) - A diagnostic procedure that can be used in diagnosing a stroke. MRI uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.
Electroencephalogram(EEG) - a procedure that records the brain's continuous, electrical activity by means of electrodes attached to the scalp.
Aphasia –A term used to describe the loss or decreased ability to understand or use language to communicate. Strokes, trauma, or tumors affecting the left side or the language side of the brain frequently disrupt communication. The kinds of communication problems, as well as the severity, vary among individuals.
Apraxia – Apraxia is the term used to describe a person’s difficulty performing voluntary, purposeful movements. The difficulties are not due to damage to the muscles themselves but result from the brain’s inability to plan the movements and send the correct message to the muscles. There are many different types of apraxia.
Ataxia- An inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement. Therefore clumsy muscle movement occurs.
Hemiparesis – Weakness on only one side of the body.
Hemiplegia – Paralysis on only one side of the body.
Dysarthria - the term used to describe difficulty with speech production. Dysarthria can be caused by strokes, traumatic brain injuries, brain tumors and some progressive diseases The type and severity of the dysarthria will vary from person to person.
Dysphagia - Difficulty moving food efficiently and safely from the mouth to the stomach.. It can be caused by strokes, tumors of the brain or head & neck region, spinal cord injuries, and some progressive diseases.
Emotional Lability – An inability to monitor and/or control ones emotions. This commonly occurs after a stroke in the right hemisphere of the brain.
Neglect – A visual change that often occurs after a stroke in the right hemisphere of the brain. An individual with neglect has difficulty seeing things in certain visual fields.
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