Wendy Murray, PhD - Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago

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  • 5,000+ inpatients treated each year, system-wide
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  • 182-bed inpatient hospital in the heart of Chicago
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  • Only rehabilitation hospital with eight federally designated research centers
  • 370+ active research projects in neuroscience, bionics, robotics, and musculoskeletal medicine
  • Academic home of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Department, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Clinical Trials

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Wendy M. Murray

Wendy M. Murray, PhD

  • Director, Applied Research in Musculoskeletal Simulation, SMPP
  • Research Scientist, SMPP
  • Associate Professor, NU


Education, Residency and Internship


University of Notre Dame, BS, Mathematics, Summa Cum Laude
Northwestern University, MS, Biomedical Eng


Northwestern University, PhD, Biomedical Eng

Additional Information

Research Lab

Honors & Awards

  • 2005 Finalist, American Society of Biomechanics Clinical Biomechanics Award
  • 2001 Finalist, International Society of Biomechanics Clinical Biomechanics Award
  • 1999-2001 Spinal Cord Research Foundation Post-Doctoral Fellowship, PVA
  • 1999-2000 NIDRR Mary Switzer Memorial Rehabilitation Research Post-Doctoral Fellowship
  • 1990   Cabell Fellowship, Northwestern University
  • 1990   Phi Beta Kappa



Peterson, CL Riley, ZA Krepkovich, ET Murray, WM Perreault, EJ Withdrawal reflexes in the upper limb adapt to arm posture and stimulus location, Muscle & Nerve. 2014 May 18; 49: 716-723.


Hu, X (2013) Perreault, EJ (2013) Feedback compensation of intrinsic muscle properties during torque regulation tasks, Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2013 Jul;2013:5646-9.

Wohlman, SJ Murray WM (2013) Bridging the gap between cadaveric and in vivo experiments: A biomechanical model evaluating thumb-tip endpoint forces, J of Biomech. 2013 Mar 15;46(5):1014-20.

Buffi JH, Crisco JJ, Murray WM (2013) A method for defining carpometacarpal joint kinematics from three-dimensional rotations of the metacarpal bones captured in vivo using computed tomography, J Biomech. 2013 Aug 9;46(12):2104-8.

Nichols JA, Bednar MS, Murray WM (2013) Orientations of wrist axes of rotation influence torque required to hold the hand against gravity: a simulation study of the nonimpaired and surgically salvaged wrist. J Biomech. 2013 Jan 4;46(1):192-6.


Craig M. Goehler, Wendy M. Murray (2012) Computational development of Jacobian matrices for complex spatial manipulators. Advances in Engineering Software 47 (2012), pp. 160-163.


Mogk JP, Johanson ME, Hentz VR, Saul KR, Murray WM. (2011) A simulation analysis of the combined effects of muscle strength and surgical tensioning on lateral pinch force following brachioradialis to flexor pollicis longus transfer. J Biomech. 2011 Feb

Hu X, Murray WM, Perreault EJ.(2011) Muscle short-range stiffness can be used to estimate the endpoint stiffness of the human arm. J Neurophysiol 105:1633-1641.  

Johanson ME, Murray WM, Hentz VR.(2011) Comparison of Wrist and Elbow Stabilization Following Pinch Reconstruction in Tetraplegia. J Hand Surg Am. Volume 36, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 480–485.   


Goehler CM, Murray WM. (2010) The sensitivity of endpoint forces produced by the extrinsic muscles of the thumb to posture. J Biomech. 2010 May 28;43(8):1553-9.


Elly S. LaRoque, Wendy M. Murray, Sarah Langley, Sanaz Hariri, Benjamin Parker Levine and Amy L. Ladd(2008) Muscle Moment Arms in the First Dorsal Extensor Compartment After Radial Malunion. A Cadaver Study. J Bone Jt Surg, 2008; 90:1979-1987. doi:10.2106/JBJS.G.01015.

Towles, J. D., Hentz, V. R., and Murray, W. M. (2008) Use of intrinsic thumb muscles may help to improve lateral pinch function restored by tendon transfer. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2008 May;23(4):387-94.  


Holzbaur, K. R. S., Murray, W. M., Gold, G. E., and Delp, S. L. (2007) Upper limb muscle volumes in adult subjects. J Biomech, 40:742-9. 

Holzbaur, K. R. S., Delp, S. L., Gold, G. E., and Murray, W. M. (2007) Moment-generating capacity of upper limb muscles. J Biomech, 40:2442-2449, 2007.


Johanson, M. E., Smaby, N., Hentz, V. R, and Murray, W. M. (2006) Reduced activation in transferred brachioradialis muscles to restore lateral pinch in tetraplegia. J Hand Surg, 31:747-53, 2006.  

Murray, W. M., Hentz, V. R., Fridén, J., Lieber, R.L. (2006) Variability in surgical technique for brachioradialis tendon transfer. Evidence and implications. J Bone Jt Surg, 88:2009-2016, 2006.  


Lieber, R. L., Murray, W. M., Clark, D. L., Hentz, V. R., and Fridén, J.(2005) Biomechanical properties of the brachioradialis muscle: Implications for surgical tendon transfer. J Hand Surg, 30:273-82, 2005.  

Holzbaur, K. R. S., Murray, W. M., and Delp, S. L.(2005) A model of the upper extremity for simulating musculoskeletal surgery and analyzing neuromuscular control. Ann Biomed Eng 33:829-40, 2005.  

Research Interests

is to use biomechanics as a framework for investigating how we move and control our arms and hands. The foundation for my work is the development of biomechanical models that represent accurately the mechanical actions of the upper extremity muscles. Computer simulations are integrated with quantitative anatomy, in vivo laser diffraction, medical imaging, and dynamometry to better characterize the basic functional capabilities of individual muscles and to quantify how these capabilities are altered by physical impairments or surgical interventions. Given the intricate anatomy of the upper extremity, I am interested in understanding how musculoskeletal design contributes to limb mechanics. I am especially motivated to apply this research to help improve function following injuries and impairments that affect the upper limb.

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